Saturday, December 22, 2018

Battleaxe II




On the morning of 15 June, 1941, the long awaited and eagerly anticipated Operation Battleaxe rolled into motion.  Eleventh Indian Brigade and 4th Royal Tank Regiment (RTR) advanced along the escarpment toward the vital Halfaya Pass, defended by 7th Bersagliere backed by anti-tank guns.  Also under 4th Indian Division command, the Guards Brigade, accompanied by 7th RTR, pushed on towards Point 206, overlooking the frontier wire.
Unfortunately a staff error (for which no satisfactory explanation was ever forthcoming, apart from the inability, twice demonstrated, of a certain general staff officer to count up to three) led to the Buffs and 2 Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders failing to appear on the start lines.  The absence of one third of the infantry rather compromised Eighth Army's chances of success in this operation (and rather discouraged the writing of this After Action Report, truth be told).  But it was a fairly involving battle all the same, and it was only when starting to write this article that I discovered the 'General Staff's' snafu.

Priority being given to the capture of Halfaya Pass, the Indian infantry attacked from above (Mahratta)  and below (Rajputana) the escarpment, led by the Central India Horse (CIH) armoured cars to spy out the defenders, and the Scots Guards and 4th Royal Tanks advancing on the left of the Indian infantry.  Supporting this attack was half the Division's artillery.

The attack upon Pt 206 was left to the Coldstream Guards and 7th Royal Tanks, supported by the balance of the Div Artillery.  (Just as an aside, here, to give the recon units a role, I enacted that the first attack against enemy in 'D' (Defence) mode required double-5 or double-6 to score hits, but subsequent attacks required only a '6'.  Nippy little recon units being capable of rapid movement to get themselves out of trouble, could afford to take the loss without being destroyed, even at the loss of all their strength points (SPs).  This allowed the troops with more heft a better chance of doing some damage before the erosion of their own strength became too severe).  According to this scheme, the CIH took its lumps and vanished behind the advancing troops.  Not that it availed much: three infantry battalions, a tank regiment and a regiment of artillery battered the Halfaya Pass position, and although what remained of the anti-tank units had to pull out, the Bersagliere seemed disinclined to follow.
 The much lighter attack on Pt206 seemed to promise better success, although 7th Royal Tanks also took heavy losses.
Meanwhile, the 7th Armoured Brigade and its support group, led by the 11th Hussars, crossed the Frontier Wire without opposition and advanced rapidly towards Hafid Ridge, the capture of which feature was deemed vital to the success of the Operation.  The position was held by a panzergrenadier battalion, a reconnaissance unit, a detachment of 8.8cm FlaK guns in anti-tank role, and a battalion from 8th Panzer Regiment.  As the main body of the British formation drove north, they left a screen of 2-pounder anti-tank guns not far distant due west of Point 206, by way of a link, or liaison, between the two wings of the Allied push.


The first real Allied success came from the extreme left of the line, with the King's Royal Rifle Corps (KRRC) and the Rifle 'Brigade' forcing 33rd Recon Unit off the western end of Hafid Ridge.  Following up this success, the infantry, with support from 2nd Royal Tanks rolled up half the remainder of the ridge, leaving the '88s' clinging precariously to the eastern end.  Meanwhile, 6th Royal Tanks swung to the right, where a counter-attack by the panzers and gepanzert infantry seemed to be developing, a few miles north of Pt 206.  The I/8th Panzer that had begun the day on Pt 208 had dropped to the desert floor to join its sister battalion for a united blow.


By mid-afternoon, the attack on Halfaya had been repulsed, and 11th Brigade was back on its start line.  The assault on Pt 206 was still ongoing, but barely. 
Aware that the defenders were as much exhausted as they themselves were, the Coldstream Guards made one final effort late in the afternoon that swept the panzergrenadiers off the feature, whence they fell back along the Wire towards Sollum..

As night drew in, Eighth Army had cleared Pt 206 and most of Hafid Ridge.  But Afrika Korps retained the hold of the rest of the eminence, and, more importantly, the Italians were still in possession of Halfaya Pass.


Of course, the action was to continue through to the second day.  In common with the usual 8th Army practice, the units in contact (i.e. in adjacent grid areas) fell back to laager overnight.  The Axis troops were allowed to remain 'in situ'.  Both sides could replenish SP losses at a rate of 50% overall, and 50% by type, halves rounded up or down in accordance with the overall total rounded up once only.  Destroyed units were not counted in the restoration.

Eighth Army lost 33SP overall: 7 tanks, 22 infantry, 4 reconnaissance, though 2 of the latter (11 Hussars) counted as destroyed when struck by enemy armour after having been reduced to 0SP.  They recovered 4 tank, 11 infantry and 1 recon SP overnight.  Not having the Axis figures (I think they lost about 16SP all up during the day), I can not comment upon their recovery, but it did mean that as far as Halfaya Pass was concerned, it would be all to do again on the morrow.
Worse news was the arrival of elements of Afrika Korps's 5th Light Division, a long column travelling along the Via Balbia towards Bardia.  Lt-Genl Cruewell ordered this formation to leave the road, and counterattack on the line west of the Hafid Ridge, where the battle was once again raging.
Seventh Armoured Division had there seized the initiative (low sequence numbers) and attempted to take that part of Hafid Ridge they had captured the day before.  In this they were less successful.  True, they overran some of the high ground once more, but were unable to sustain themselves there, and KRRC found themselves perforce driven off with heavy losses and forced back towards the wire.
German counter-attacks developed soon from the east end of Hafid, from a battalion each of panzers and gepanzert infantry.  Within a few hours, 5th Light Division was to join in the attacks.



A somewhat revitalised 4th Indian Division began its assault upon Halfaya Pass, bringing in all the resources that could be brought to bear, save 3rd Coldstream Guards occupying Pt 206.  That stout battalion had to be left to its own devices, though, as it turned out, they were not seriously attacked throughout the day.  By this concerted effort, the Bersagliere were gradually levered out of their dug in positions, and fell back towards the Sollum-Fort Capuzzo line. It was an exiguous Indian Brigade that occupied the hard-won Pass.

That was to be Eighth Army's sole achievement of the day.


At this point 'Jacko' (Paul Jackson, playing the Axis role) had to leave for a mid-afternoon commitment.  Although it was fairly plain already that 8th Army had achieved all it was going to achieve, there was still two-thirds of the second day remaining.  I decided to play it out solo.




Most of the remainder of the action now took place west of the Wire, as Afrika Korps settled upon the destruction of 7th Armoured Division. 

Driven off the Hafid Ridge feature, 4th Armoured Brigade and 7th Support Group formed a defensive line facing towards the northeast.  The German panzer and gepanzert elements had meanwhile withdrawn for the time being around the east end of Hafid Ridge.  Beyond the ridge, where it petered out into the desert floor, KRRC riflemen could descry the dust clouds that heralded the approach of 5th Light Division.

Seventh Armoured were not long left in suspense.  DAK recon elements soon discovered the British defence line, whereat 5th Light attacked from the north, with 15th Panzer Div infantry joining in supported by their artillery.  The 15th Div panzers carried out, meanwhile, a direct attack upon the 2-pounder portee gun line - a costly charge as it turned out.  Barely half the panzers survived to overrun the guns, but overrun them, they did.
The real denouement was being enacted some five to ten miles to the west.  Fifth Light Division developed an attack against the flank of the 7th Armoured Division line, whilst the panzergrenadiers of 15th Panzer Division attacked the centre, where 2nd Battalion, Rifle Brigade occupied a shallow salient.


The King's Royal Rifle Corps was soon overrun by tanks, after which a considerable battle raged all over the desert floor between Hafid Ridge and the Wire.  Almost from the start, the British defences began to crumble, though the Germans were taking heavy losses as well.  As the late afternoon light began to fade, the Rifle Brigade was in turn driven in.  The rest of 7th Armoured - what remained of the tanks and the artillery - gave up the struggle and retreated, back over the Wire.....
There ended the two-day Operation Battleaxe battle.  Its only successes were the capture of Point 206, and carrying of the Halfaya Pass position - though they were sufficient for Lt-Gen Beresford-Pierse to claim a victory.  If victory it was, it cost a great deal in manpower and equipment, especially armour.  
Unfortunately, my own cock-up with the missing battalions deprived this action of much of its interest.  It must have been a much closer thing had they been present.  In the real operation, the Guards Brigade carried Fort Capuzzo. That was never going to happen in this action.  For all that, it remained an involving battle as it stood.  This has to be on the 'Must Redo' list.



Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Battleaxe -


A couple of weekends back, 'Jacko' (Paul Jackson) and I fought out
a Hexblitz version of Operation Battleaxe, based on the original 1941 attempt, if not to relieve the Tobruk garrison, withal, at least to clear
the Halfaya (Hellfire) Pass of its defenders.  This action was by way of an experiment, to see how a battle over a broad stretch of country might be reduced to my 4-foot square table.

One approach to transferring the map into a field of hexes, is to draw it, very roughly, on a field of 'offset oblongs' first, and then translate into the hex-field.  I have 'on file' a blank hex-field representing my table, upon which I can draw freehand, or use some software (e.g. Microsoft 'Paint') to draw up a map.  The coloured stars on the map I'll explain later.

I based this scenario upon something similar I found in the Rommel discussion group.  I made a few changes, and the rule set I used was Bob Cordery's Hexblitz, but tailored for a large ground scale.

The action was the Eighth Army attempt to capture the Halfaya Pass and Sollum town, then to push on to take Hafid Ridge and Bardia.  Having achieved these objectives, the Commonwealth troops would have been well on the way to relieving the besieged Tobruk garrison - off the map to the north-west.

The forces were:

Eighth Army:

XIII Corps: 

     HQ: Lt-Genl Beresford-Pierse,  1 Strength Point (SP=1)
     7 Armoured Division:
          Div HQ: Scout car, 1SP
          4 Armoured Brigade (detached to 4 Indian Division Command)
               4 Royal Tank Regiment  1 Matilda SP=3
               7 RTR 1 Matilda (actually used a Valentine substitute) SP=3
          7 Armoured Brigade:
               2 RTR 1 Cruiser Tank SP=3
               6 RTR 1 Crusader Mk 1 Tank SP=3
          7 Support Group:
               Support Group Artillery: 1 x 25pr gun/howitzer, Quad SP=2
               1/King's Royal Rifle Corps (KRRC), motorised: SP=4
               2/Rifle Brigade (2RB), motorised: SP=4
               Anti-Tank: 1 x 2pr gun: SP=2
          Div Troops:
               11 Hussars: 1 x Armoured Car (Humber II): SP=2
               Engineer Companies (these I left off, but could have been included for mine or obstacle clearance.)
               Supply Column: 1 truck, LOG=2
7 Armoured Division advancing to the Frontier Wire,
heading for Hafid Ridge and Fort Capuzzo.
    4 Indian Division:
          Div HQ: Scout car, SP=1
          11 Indian Infantry Brigade:
               2/Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders (QOCH): SP=4
               1/6 Rajputana Rifles: SP=4
               2/5 Mahratta Light Infantry: SP=4
          22 Guards Brigade:
               1 Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment): SP=4
               2 Scots Guards: SP=4
               3 Coldstream Guards: SP=4
           Div Troops:
               Central India Horse: 1 x Humber II, SP=2
               Field Artillery: 2 x 25pr, Quad @ 2SP: SP=4
               Supply Column: 1 truck, LOG=2

4 Indian Division - 11th Brigade advancing above and below
the escaprment to Halfaya Pass; 3rd Coldstream Guards
with tank support, going for Point 206.

Panzergruppe Afrika:

Afrika Corps: 

     Corps HQ: Lt-Gen L. Cruewell SP=1
     15 Panzer Division:
          Div HQ: SP=1
          I/8 Pz Rgt: 1 x PzIIIH: SP=3
          II/8 Pz Rgt: 1 x PzIVF1: SP=3
          I/104 PzGr Rgt: 4 inf stands, 1 half-track: SP=4
          II/104 PzGr Rgt: 4  inf stands, truck: SP=4
          33 Artillery Rgt: 1 x 10.5cm howitzer: SP=2
          33 FlaK Abt (elements): 1 x 8.8cm FlaK: SP=2
          33 Recon Unit: 1 x SdKfz222, SP=1
          Supply Column: 1 truck LOG=2
      5 Light Division (elements):
          Div HQ: SP=1
          I/5 Pz Rgt: 1 x PzIIIH: SP=3
          2/200 MG Bn: 4 infantry stands, truck: SP=4
          Supply Column: 1 x truck. LOG=2
      102 'Trento' Italian Division:
          61 'Sicilia' Infantry: SP=3
          62 'Sicilia' Infantry: SP=3
          7 Bersagliere Infantry: SP=4
          Anti-Tank Abt (German, attached): 1 x 37mm PaK: SP=2
          Artillery: 2 x 100mm piece (one placed in Bardia): SP=2


Well... this is what the forces should have been.  Looking back at my photos, I find that somehow the Indian Division was short-changed two battalions.

Trento Division was deployed defending the border - the Bersagliere battalion, bolstered by German antitank guns, dug in at Halfaya pass, whilst the two Sicilia battalions and the Divisional artillery were deployed around Sollum and Fort Capuzzo. The red stars on the map shows where the Axis forces could be deployed.  With some exceptions, the Axis had a free hand otherwise where things went.  The limits were:
1.  7th Bersaliere was dug in at Halfaya pass, along with Anti-tank.
2.  One Italian artillery unit had to be at Bardia.
3.  The rest of Trento Division was deployed at or between Sollum and Fort Capuzzo.
4.  One 15th Pz Div infantry battalion was dug in on Point 206
5.  The four hexes comprising Hafid Ridge and Point 208 could be occupied by elements of 15th Pz Div, one of which had to be the 8.8cm FlaK.
6.  The rest of 15th Pz Div began the action along the Via Balbia west of Bardia.
7.  Fifth Light Division began the action off-table.  From memory, they were to be brought onto the table upon a die-roll of 6 at the beginning of a turn.

 
Elements of 15th Panzer Division occupying Hafid Ridge.
Only Hafid Ridge and Points 208 and 206 could be occupied;
the reat of 15th Panzer began the action from along
via Balbia west of Bardia.


Some rule modifications.  The scale of this table was somewhat larger than the standard Hexblitz scale (1:25,000) - more like 1:100,000 - each 4cm hex grid area representing 4 kilometres.  This made the 4-hex range for artillery rather on the generous side (!) but it seemed to work.

Still preferring multiple stands for battalions, I have come up with these 'stacking' conventions:
1.  If a unit is occupying a single hex, the only units that may occupy the same hex are HQ, spotter or recon units.  (I'm thinking of including light anti-tank in these).  Only one such additional unit may be stacked
2.  A unit may occupy two adjacent hexes, or three in a triangle. Only one infantry unit may do so, but other types of units - armour, artillery, recon, anti-tank etc may be 'stacked' with it, one per hex occupied.  (In this Battleaxe scenario, 7th Bersagliere occupied the Halfaya Pass hex plus an adjacent one along the escarpment.  'Stacked' with the Bersagliere, was a unit of German light anti-tank guns, defending the pass.  Note that in the scale of this game, the range of the AT guns is to adjacent hexes only).

7th Armoured Division, crossing the Wire.
Notes on the Frontier Wire.
1.  This counted as a minor obstacle.  A unit moving up to it had to halt, but could proceed as normal the move following.
2.  Rather than lining hex-sides, I am developing a convention - which includes streams and other types of linear obstacles, and roads as well, of arranging them within grid areas, but alongside edges or angles, still leaving most of the grid area clear, or with whatever terrain the area features.  The grid area counts as whatever terrain it holds, but obstacle counts against crossing into an adjacent grid area on the other side of it.  It also counts against any unit crossing in the opposite direction.

This seems to make it a whole lot clearer where the obstacles are and how they affect movement.

To be continued...

Thursday, December 13, 2018

3D Vision -

Since I first discovered one eye clouding over with cataracts, some 13 years ago, I used to monitor progress by looking for the 3D Images in my Magic Eye book (Magic Eye, N.E. Thing Enterprises, USA, 1993).
...

Gradually, some of the 'finer grained' images faded from view, until, until just a few months ago my right eye also started to fade, and that at an alarming rate.  Crossing the road was beginning to be a hazardous undertaking. Reading was becoming very difficult and tiring to boot.  So bad was it withal that in August I set wheels in motion to get the problem fixed.  Unwilling to take my chances on a lengthy wait through the public health system, I 'went private'.  Fortunately, I had enough money by that I could pay for it without borrowing.



Now, in mid-December, cataracts have been removed from both eyes; my 'unaided' vision is better than it has been since I was 13 years old; and I am enjoying reading again.  "I can see again!  It's  miracle!"  ... I did so want to be able to say that.  Now I can see all the 3D images in this book, including that on the front cover and the end papers.  Wonderful.

(I found I could resolve these two images 'on screen' as well.    Even up to the end I could still resolve the two with only a little difficulty.  So you might want to give them a go. No spoiler alerts...)

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Vales of Lyndhurst - Combat at Aldbury 2

Arrival of lead elements of the Commonwealth Army.

Dawn, 26 July 1725, broke fine and sunny, though still damp from the previous evening's showers. As the Commonwealth Army, led by the Duke of Norfolk lurched into motion along the Broad Street road towards London, the head of the column had to pass through the gap between the Telford's Tavern forest to the left and the marshy banked Pincey Brook to the right.  There, less than a mile to the south, the leading cavalry scouts could descry Royalist horse, foot and guns, arrayed as for battle.
Map of the Battlefield, showing opening moves
It was from the point between forest and stream, that the road branched, Broad Street itself veering slightly to the the right to pass by Greenhill Woods and Farm, through the hamlet itself, and on south.  A side-road cut sharply towards the east, through the woods past Telford's Tavern, then south again through Aldbury village, whence, two or three miles further on, this road rejoined Broad Street.  A lateral east-west road linked Aldbury with Broad Street, just south of Greenhill.  It was along this line that Major-General Preston had drawn up his army to contest the Commonwealth advance.

General view of the battlefield looking westward.
The Royalists' broad plan was to hold the Greenhill and Aldbury places in some strength, in order to channel the Commonwealth advance into a sack and killing zone in the open centre.  Accordingly, the Royalist Cavalry was drawn up in the centre, supported by the artillery and but one regiment of foot - the 93rd - drawn from the Gloucester Brigade (5th).  The rest of the Gloucester Brigade was deployed in and around Aldbury, whilst the Midlands (6th) Brigade garrisoned Greenhill Village, with 36th Foot holding the orchard adjoining the north side of Greenhill Farm.
Two Royalist foot battalions encounter CW dragoons.
Norfolk's quick survey of what confronted his army quickly decided him that he ought as quickly as possible seize, take or carry the flanking strongpoints of Aldbury and Greenhill, to unhinge the Royalist line, whilst pounding the centre with artillery.  Then, with his cavalry and reserve foot brigade, smash through the centre. Such a plan seemed to offer promising results.



For his part discontented with merely awaiting the enemy assault, General Preston gave orders for his Aldbury units to counter-attack early - to meet the enemy advance.  The terrain around Greenhill less conducive to such an effort, he dispatched 3rd Dragoon Regiment far to the left, to cover that flank, or perhaps even to fall upon the enemy right, if the opportunity presented. The centre could wait, though Preston kept an eye to possible cavalry charges if and when chances arose.


The first actions developed on the east flank, when the dragoons leading Sir Horace Malvoisin's (2nd) Brigade encountered two Royalist foot regiments coming the other way, just beyond the stretch where the Aldbury road passed by some enclosed fields.  A brisk and bloody action there ensued, in which 11th Foot took very heavy losses (2SP) and were driven back, 10th Foot came off lightly (no loss), and the dragoons were also driven back with loss (1SP).
11th Royalist foot take heavy casualties, but the
Dragoons are driven off.
The clash to the east was soon followed by an all-cavalry fight on the west flank, beside Greenhill Farm.  The Royalist 3rd Dragoon almost overwhelmed the Duke of Norfolk's Own Light Dragoons (2SP), but, though taking minimal hurt themselves, fell back beyond the farm.  For their part, though badly mauled, Norfolk's Own presented a bold front to the enemy, determined to protect the flank of the infantry assault that was soon to come against the Farm garrison.

Perhaps here was an opportunity missed for the farm garrison to come out and drive off the Commonwealth light horse once and for all, but the rapidly approaching enemy foot might well have caught the Royalists in the open, thrown them back through the farm and beyond, and thereby unhinging at least one of the Royalist  flanks.

Royalist Dragoons vs CW Light Horse.
The preliminary clashes on the flanks being inconclusive - though perhaps slightly to Royalist advantage, General Preston ordered a quick blow to be struck against the somewhat tentative Commonwealth advances in the centre.  A telling salvo already having caused disruption to the leading Commonwealth cavalry here, it seemed only right to complete their discomfiture.  Forward went 2nd Royal Dragoons, only to be forced back in a brief, indeterminate encounter.  It was true, however, that the enemy horse also deemed it prudent to fall back behind the heavy guns. 
Royalist Light Dragoons strike at a Commonwealth
Heavy cavalry unit already depleted by gunfire.
Between the enclosures and the mere flanking the Aldbury road, 11th Battalion had been forced back into the hamlet. but the 10th, soon to be assisted by the 33rd, stood to contest the approach of Malvoisin's Brigade.  The lead Commonwealth battalions, 12th and 13th Battalions, soon halted to face the 10th, hard by the mere; but the 13th had also to contend with the 33rd, which had entered the enclosures flanking the road.
Battle of the Enclosures - Royalist delaying action.
The 10th soon fell back, though casualties were light (no SPs, just a 'force-back' option), as their counter-attack had been intended merely to delay. On the other hand, between them the 10th and 33rd inflicted considerable damage to the Commonwealth infantry (3SP altogether). The 10th's withdrawal, however, rather left the 33rd in the lurch, though that unit at least enjoyed some protection from the hedgerows and walls of the enclosed fields. 
General view.
It was not long before the 33rd had to endure the whole weight of Malvoisin's Brigade attacking from the north and east.  The 13th (CW) battalion pushed down the road before swinging to attack the enclosures, whilst the 12th wheeled behind them and joined the attack to their right.  The next battalion, the 94th, pressed into the enclosures from the north.  The Royalists caused some loss to the 12th and 13th both (1 SP each) but themselves took damage (1 SP and a 'force-back' option). 
The trials of 33rd Foot.

Falling back from the enclosures, they ran into the 12th Light Infantry (CW) advancing between tracts of woodland. Hurrying forward, the lights hit the Royalist left rear, whereat a fierce combat ensued. Hit in flank, the Royalist combat dice was reduced from three to two; the Commonwealth correspondingly increased from three to four.  Both sides scored 1 hit, the Royalists added a 'forceback' option; the light infantry two 'forceback' options.  Both sides took the options instead of the hits.  The light infantry fell back into the woods to their rear; the 33rd Foot, drew back alongside the supporting 9-pounder battery.
Further trials of 33rd Foot.
As the combat raged about the enclosures, the Commonwealth dragoons charged the Royalist 10th, still in the open, its withdrawal not having taken it as far back as the Aldbury village.  Bayonet met sword in a brief, though vicious little scrimmage, in which the dragoon were hit and thrown back, but not before they had laid low nearly half the infantry (1SP lost plus force back on the Horse; 2SP lost to 10th Battalion).
Royalist Foot vs Commonwealth Horse.  The Foot drive
off the cavalry - but at a high cost.


View from behind Malvoisin's Bde
With the retreat of the dragoons, something of a lull descended upon the eastern third of the battlefield.  The depleted battalions of Macclefield's Brigade (the 93rd had remained in the centre) formed a line about Aldbury, all three battalions somewhat battered (reduced from 4 to 2 SP each).  But the Commonwealth had not got off unscathed, Malvoisin's Brigade (6SP) and the dragoons (1SP) equally knocked about.


General view late morning.
Meanwhile, how were fortunes shaping elsewhere on the field?  The Brigade of Mugglesworth (6th) had at last got  into action against the Greenhill Farm garrison (36th Royalist); 35th Foot and 14th Light  leading the assault.  Norfolk's battered Light Horse gallantly sustained the flank of the assault, and even saw off (though with no significant loss) an attempted intervention by Royalist dragoons (3rd).  It was no easy matter to assault an enclosed orchard, even at odds approaching two to one.  The desperate defenders clung on despite heavy losses (2SP), and even gave better than they got (2SP on the Lights, 1SP on the Foot).  Even so, at that rate of attrition, surely the farm could not much longer be held.

Greenhill Farm under attack.
With the Commonwealth attention focused upon clearing the flanks of the Royalist position, little enough was happening in the centre.  Some desultory artillery shooting proved by and large ineffective at the longish ranges, and Norfolk himself was too busy directing operations to order up the other half of his artillery and Warwick's Brigade, waiting close by (off the table, but ready to hand). 


A rather vacant looking Commonwealth centre - but
Warwick's brigade, heavy cavalry and two batteries
are immediately to hand off table.

For their part, the Royalist command was still anxiously awaiting the arrival of their militia reinforcements.  So far, their troops had acquitted themselves well, and given rather better than they had received (it was shortly after this point I counted 10 Royalist SP lost against 16 Commonwealth).  But the difference was only to be expected in the early stages of an assault.  Once the Commonwealth began to achieve the ascendancy, then the Royalists could count upon a bloody requital.
Royalist Horse showing a bold front.
Though the situation had quieted down along the Aldbury road, the 36th Foot anticipated with apprehension the renewed attack by five times their number of adversaries.  The dragoons were helping to keep some of the enemy foot at bay, but even so, once the Farm was lost, Greenhill village would probably fall soon afterwards, and the Royalist defence line rolled up from the left.
View from the Royalist left.

The combat along the Aldbury road was not yet finished.  After forcing the Royalists out of the enclosures, 13th Foot found itself practically enfiladed within grapeshot range of the Royalist cannon close by the village.  The shooting was devastatingly effective: the remaining strength drained from the battalion as it fled down the road (I see I actually removed the unit from the board, though I ought not to have done.  It would have been reduced to 0SP, forced to retreat 2 grid areas, and been out of the battle for the duration.  I am also under the apprehension that the artillery ranges might be too generous - OK for the heavies, maybe, but this was a battery of mediums).  

Very effective gunfire. the SP dice has been knocked, but
it is easy to infer the unit has 2 SP remaining... Well,
it did have...

Royalist Cuirassiers in action.
With little going on for the moment in the centre, the Royalist command thought to initiate some action of their own in this sector. The 'Blues' carabiniers - elite horsemen who clung to their old-fashioned cuirasses and leather jerkins - thundered forward to strike at the nearest mounted adversaries.  The melee, though brief, redounded to the glory of the Royalist horse: flinging the enemy back with loss.  But they were glad enough rapidly to pull back out of the short range of the Commonwealth heavy cannon.


When heavy cavalry clashes.  The Royalists get the better of this one.



As the carabiniers asserted the ascendancy over the opposing horse, the 2nd Dragoon Regiment boldly charged the medium battery, which had been pushed rather in advance of the heavies, and had no immediate protection.  In this, the Horse were taking only a slight risk, as the range allowed the cannon to double the combat dice (from 2 to 4) the odds were equal of the one scoring a telling hit upon the other.  The consequences of a 'force-back' on the cavalry was matched by the higher proportionate harm a hit would have on the guns.


Dragoons charging the guns: high risk, but they get away
with it!

As it was, the Dragoons 'got lucky.'  Their charge rode down part of the battery at once, and the intervention of the 12th Light Infantry was too late to prevent the whole remainder of the battery to be put to the sword.  The dragoons lost hardly a man.  It was fortunate that the dragoons scored such a quick victory, for in the distance they see the Commonwealth reserves beginning their advance in the centre.


The Dragoons overrun the battery, 
just before the 12th Light intervenes...

During all this time, that the attacks upon Greenhill Farm continued.  The 3rd Dragoons nerved themselves once more to charge the Norfolk Light Horse - and this time flung them back, through their foot and well to the rear.  The Commonwealth foot had now to concern themselves about their right flank.  The assault on the farm had suddenly, it seemed, become a rather more difficult undertaking.
The Battle for Greenhill Farm rages on...
Sure enough, the lead battalions of Mugglesworth's brigade suffered a repulse.  Fourteenth Light were scattered to the four winds, and 35th Foot were glad to drop back behind the second line and call it a day.  For all that, only an exiguous garrison remained (1SP left) to defy whatever the Commonwealth might bring against them.
The first attacks are repulsed from Greenhill Farm. 

The active Royalist defence had earned them a respite, all along the line, their front undented.  To be sure, the Aldbury road enclosures had been lost, but their occupation had been by way of an action to delay the main assault against Aldbury village itself.  Losses among the Royalist foot so far engaged had been grievous enough, but they had inflicted worse hurt upon their enemy.  
General view - a pause on the Commonwealth left.



The battle came to a pause as Norfolk brought up his reserves.  The attacks upon the flanking strongpoints were to be resumed, whilst the heavy cavalry and Warwick's foot advanced in the centre.  There was still a very good chance to smash this stubborn Royalist army.
Malvoisin's Brigade resumes its advance...

The Royalists were not yet driven into passive defence.  Third Dragoons needed no persuasion to fall upon the flank of 39th Foot.  This was not to be the Dragoons' finest hour: coolly meeting the charge, with Sir Herbert himself on hand, the infantry sent the Royalist horse to the right-about, and back beyond the farm they went.  


Royalist dragoons unsuccessfully charge the
Commonwealth flank.


Warwick's advance
A lull in the action.
Now began a general Commonwealth advance, all along the line.Dense masses of foot and horse, guns among them, filled the space between Telford's Wood and Pincey Brook.  The flanking assaults about the be resumed, prospects might have looked bleak enough for the Royalists, but for the arrival, betimes, of the long and anxiously awaited Militia Brigade.  General Preston formed three of the battalions into a line defending the hedgerows along the lateral Greenhill-Aldbury road, whilst two others were detailed to sustain the defences around Greenhill Village.  Were the farm to be lost, they might yet recover it.  Meanwhile, 93rd Foot was to be returned to Macclesfield's Brigade to bolster the Aldbury defences.  Macclesfield had more than mere defence in mind.


The Royalist Militia arrives.  Will they be needed?

Soon the Commonwealth opened a furious attack upon Greenhill Farm - three fresh battalions against the remnants of the Royalist garrison.  Such an unequal combat could have but one result, and at last Greenhill farm fell into Commonwealth possession.
General cavalry advance by Commonwealth Horse,
led by the Duke of Norfolk himself.
Somewhat impatiently, Norfolk allowed a gap to appear between the leading cavalry and Warwick's Brigade in the centre.  This allowed the Royalist cavalry to sally forth, strike heavy blows, driving one regiment completely from the field at trifling loss to themselves. (Unfortunately I missed snapping that melee, the following and the final picture effective providing a distant  'before' and 'after' distant impression of the clash).
General view.  In the distance the CW cavalry are pushing
forward.
The final act of the day was the intervention of the hitherto unengaged 93rd Foot, which launched a savage counterattack against Malvoisin's brigade.  The centre battalion, the already weakened 12th, somewhat in advance of its flanking fellows (a bit of a mistake, that, on my part), the Royalists struck them before the others could intervene. The Commonwealth 12th infantry sure died hard, inflicting heavy losses to the enemy, before themselves breaking and falling back.  (The following picture shows the blood-letting: Royalists 3SP and a forceback - overkill against a unit already down to 1SP! - Commonwealth: 2 SP and a forceback).  It was a somewhat depleted 93rd Battalion that fell back to the Brigade line. 
Terrible firefight between 93rd (Royalist) and 12th (CW).
That seemed to be the signal for the Commonwealth Army to call off its attacks.  The Army had reached the end of its tether, its losses too heavy, and the arrival of the Royalist Militia too opportune, to offer much hope to break through to London.  The Royalists had won a signal victory! 
General view.  CW cavalry defeated in the centre.  Capture
of Greenhill Farm is all the CW achieved.
I could not have foreseen this result, though in hindsight, the Royalists were luckier overall in their combat dice.  The loss of 29 Strength Points (29SP - 20 Foot, 7 Horse, 2 Guns) the Commonwealth Army had reached its 'exhaustion point'.  Even had the Militia not arrived (they turned up at move 7), the loss of 16SP (14 Foot, 2 Horse) was not enough to bring the Royalists to exhaustion.

The whole affair makes me begin to wonder whether attack is really viable with the rule set I am using.  On the other hand, the Royalists conducted an active defence, in terrain that seemed to permit it, striking out from their main line.  The Commonwealth plan overall seemed reasonable - even a good one, somewhat reminiscent of the Royalist victory at Lansdowne in 1643.  It looks all the same, time for a thorough review of this rule set...

To be continued...